Is PI 88788 Working in Your Soybean Fields?

Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) is the number one yield-reducing pest in soybeans. Potential yield loss to SCN is expected to rise as more and more populations of SCN overcome the PI 88788 source of resistance. The Peking source of SCN resistance is not near as common as the PI 88788 source but is used in several soybean varieties.

If you want to see how the SCN resistance source in your soybeans is holding up this growing season, you can do an early and late SCN soil test. If the egg count increases substantially between the early and late SCN sample, your SCN resistance source is likely failing.

Here are the 4 steps to this simple test:

Early SCN sample (June): 

  1. Choose a spot in a current soybean field
  2. Collect 8 to 10 0-6″ soil cores taken within the soybean row at that spot
  3. Mark that spot with a flag or GPS so you can get back to that spot to sample later in the season

Late SCN sample (mid to late August): 

4. Go back to the same spot you collected a soil sample from in June and repeat step #2

Once you’ve conducted this simple test, you will get an idea of whether or not the SCN resistance source in your soybean variety is holding up or if it is time to change the resistance source in next year’s varieties. AGVISE completed a field project using a similar procedure in 2019 and 2020. The data showed that the PI 88788 trait was not preventing SCN populations from increasing in some field sites tested in Minnesota. You can read more about our project here.

Data from the AGVISE SCN field project, 2019-2020

A silver bullet for managing SCN does not exist and will likely never exist. Do your due diligence and figure out if your SCN resistance source is working in your own fields.

You can order SCN submission forms from our online supply store here.

Additional resources:

SCN in Iowa: A Serious Problem that Warrants Renewed Attention

Iowa State University – SCN Resources




Soybean cyst nematode: Failing resistance traits, increasing SCN populations

Originally featured in the Winter 2020-2021 AGVISE Laboratories Newsletter

In 2019, AGVISE Laboratories investigated if popular soybean varieties with PI88788 or Peking SCN-resistance traits were effectively providing protection from soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and found that a number of the varieties failed to do so. We expanded the project in 2020 with cooperation from agronomists in west-central Minnesota.

For over 20 years, PI88788 has been the primary SCN-resistance trait in over 95% of soybean varieties. In the past few years, university research is showing that PI88788 is losing its effectiveness at controlling SCN. Detecting SCN-resistant trait failure with the naked eye is impossible, unlike the detection of failed pesticide control, where you can still see a herbicide-resistant weed that is growing vigorously. Therefore, we wanted to demonstrate how you can measure SCN resistance with soil sampling, even though you cannot see it with your naked eye.

In the project, we had 41 soybean fields with SCN-resistant varieties, 35 with the PI88788 trait, and 6 with the Peking trait. In each field, a location was flagged and soil sampled for SCN egg count in early (June) and late (September) parts of the growing season. From June to September, the SCN egg count increased by 4.9 times on average across all 41 soybean fields (individual field reproduction factor ranged from 1.2 to 12.9). In some fields, the high SCN reproduction rate shows that SCN were successfully reproducing on soybean plants and the SCN resistance trait is failling. We also learned that soybean varieties with the Peking trait had much better control of SCN than those with the PI88788 trait. One cooperator from Benson, MN grew both PI88788 and Peking soybean varieties on his farm. He noted a 2.5 bu/acre soybean yield advantage with the Peking soybean variety (56.5 bu/acre) over the PI88788 soybean variety (54.0 bu/acre).

The project showed that SCN soil sampling in the early vs. late growing season was a simple way to detect a failing SCN resistance trait. The simple protocol only takes a big flag to mark the spot, then a set of soil samples in June and September to compare the SCN egg count results.


Copper for Small Grains

Among crops grown in the northern Great Plains, small grains (cereals) are the most susceptible to copper deficiency. Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient required in small concentrations for plant growth and reproduction. Copper deficiency symptoms in cereals include pale yellowing, wilted and twisted leaf tips, and malformed seed heads. Severe copper deficiency will stop plant growth and kill plants during tiller formation. During pollination, copper deficiency will cause florets to remain partially open. This creates a vulnerable period for diseases, such as Fusarium head blight (head scab) and ergot, to infect the seed head and reduce grain yield.

Small grains sensitive to copper deficiency include barley, oat, rye, triticale, and wheat (including durum, spring, and winter types). Copper deficiency is most common on soils with less than 0.5 ppm Cu. Soils with low soil test Cu frequently include sandy soils with low organic matter (<3.0%) and organic soils (peat) with very high organic matter (>10%). Between soil and plant analysis, diagnosing copper deficiency with soil analysis is the most predictive. Plant analysis is less helpful because the plant Cu concentrations in sufficient and deficient plants are very close.

The most effective strategy to build soil test Cu on mineral soils is to broadcast-incorporate copper sulfate (25% Cu). building soil test Cu for many years. Do not mix copper sulfate with seed-placed dry fertilizer blends for air drills; copper sulfate is a hygroscopic (water holding) material that makes blending difficult and bridging is a concern. For seed-placed copper, use a liquid copper source injected in furrow. Liquid copper sources include dissolved copper sulfate and various chelated Cu products.

On organic soils, soil test Cu is difficult to build as copper readily forms complexes with soil organic matter. To reduce copper complexation, apply seed-placed liquid copper at planting and follow with foliar copper in the first herbicide application. Liquid copper sources include dissolved copper sulfate and various chelated Cu products.